Parshas Ki Savo 5758 - '98
Outline Vol. 2, # 45
Chodshei Hashanah Vol. 2 # 28
Two Days: Split Sanctity
Since Yom Tov is based on a calendar date, and the dates of the months were established by the court, the court controlled the occurrence of Yom Tov.
We have seen how Rosh Hashanah is unique, in that it specifically coincides with the occurrence of the new moon. It is the only holiday that is observed for two days, even in Jerusalem.
Last week, we discussed the Rabbinic decree that, if the witnesses of the new moon were delayed until afternoon, two days would be declared sanctified: one with a Torah status, one with a Rabbinic status. This decree introduced a new concept.
There has always been a notion of two days of Yom Tov for those out of communication with the court, due to doubt. (See Rabbenu Bachaye to Parshas Bo, Asarah Ma’amaros [quoted in Magen Avraham, Hilchos Shavous].) However, the decree of two days of Rosh Hashanah which we are referring to, was much different. Here, the two days were not imposed as a matter of doubt, but by a definite enactment.
According to Rashi, if the witnesses were late, the new law would not allow them to come to court on the first day. By preventing the witnesses from coming to court, the decree forced the sanctity of Rosh Hashanah to take affect the second day. At the same time, the first day would also have a degree of sanctity. What is the nature of this split sanctity?
Tzafnas Pane’ach shows how the calendar date was counted from the first day, and the shofar was sounded then, but the sacrifices were essentially brought the second day. (See Rav Moshe Sternbuch, Mo’adim Uzmanim, Vol. 6 #9)
As Rav Sternbuch points out, this helps us to understand the two days of Rosh Hashanah today; the second day, too, has great significance. Actually, according to the original decree, the second day was sanctified according to Torah Law, and should have been the more significant one.
Close to the time of the destruction of the Beis Hamikdash, the court moved to Yavneh, and again allowed the witnesses to appear any time the first day. The first day returned to be the more significant day from the Torah. Nonetheless, after much debate, the Talmud concludes that the decree of two definite days remains in effect. (Tractate Beitza, 4b - 5b)
What is Required
The Alter of Slabodka (Rav Noson Tzvi Finkel) urged his students to strive for unlimited greatness; as we know, in this endeavor he was extremely successful. Especially at this time of year -- the Alter would say -- we should not be satisfied with our spiritual levels. "(In the next world) we will be required to be complete in all spiritual areas -- never be satisfied!" (See Ohr Tzafon, vol. 3, p. 73.) No matter our age and backround, it is never too late to get started.
What to Bring at Rosh Hashanah
At each Yom Tov, a special offering was given, concerning the material judged at that particular festival. For example, there is a judgment regarding water at Sukkos, and there are special water libations at that time. (Tractate Rosh Hashanah 16a.) At Rosh Hashanah, when the judgment regards man in general -- he should have to bring himself! (Rav Shlomo Brevda, published in Am Hatorah)
Rabbi Yaakov Bernstein
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Text Copyright © '98 Rabbi Yaakov Bernstein and Project Genesis, Inc.
Copyright © '98 Project Genesis, Inc.